for joint programming

There are a large number of public-to-public (P2P) initiatives operating in the European research Area. Many focus on aligning research programmes and -to some extent- also research policies. The vast majority of these initiatives is funded through Framework Programme instruments: the ERA-NETS, JPIs, EJPs and the Article 185 Initiatives.

Two structures that operate different from the above-mentioned initiatives are the Standing Committee on Agricultural Research (SCAR) and the International Bioeconomy Forum (IBF).